Working Papers

Analyzing Variations in Advertising and Promotional Expenditures: Key Correlates in Consumer, Industrial, and Service Markets

Siva K. Balasubramanian and V. Kumar

Jan 1, 1990

Explains variation in advertising and promotional expenditures-to-sales ratios, or marketing communications intensity (MCI), across three markets; presents empirical study to identify the key correlates of MCI in 30 industries.

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